Gunpowder serie deutschland
Gunpowder Serie Deutschland Fakten zur 1. Staffel von Gunpowder
Gunpowder Staffel 1 Episodenguide: Wir fassen schnell & übersichtlich alle Folgen der 1. ausführlichen Kritiken zu jeder Folge ✓, die Besetzung ✓, den Start in Deutschland ✓ & Möglichkeiten zum Stream! Staffel der Serie Gunpowder. Miniserie in 3 Teilen. Deutsche Erstausstrahlung: RTL Crime. Original-Erstausstrahlung: BBC One (Englisch). Im Jahr hallen die. Die Erstausstrahlung der dreiteiligen Miniserie erfolgte vom Oktober bis zum 4. November bei BBC One. Die deutsche Erstausstrahlung erfolgte am GunpowderDie komplette Serie (2 DVDs) · Bestellen · Preisvergleich · Miniserie in 3 Teilen. Deutsche Erstausstrahlung: (RTL Crime). England, . Gunpowder jetzt legal online anschauen. Die Serie ist aktuell bei Amazon, TVNOW, iTunes, Google Play verfügbar. Im Jahr hallen die.
Die dreiteilige Historien-Serie "Gunpowder" erzählt die Geschichte des geplanten Anschlags im Kampf gegen die Verfolgung der Katholiken. GunpowderDie komplette Serie (2 DVDs) · Bestellen · Preisvergleich · Miniserie in 3 Teilen. Deutsche Erstausstrahlung: (RTL Crime). England, . Gunpowder Staffel 1 Episodenguide: Wir fassen schnell & übersichtlich alle Folgen der 1. ausführlichen Kritiken zu jeder Folge ✓, die Besetzung ✓, den Start in Deutschland ✓ & Möglichkeiten zum Stream! Staffel der Serie Gunpowder.
Gunpowder Serie Deutschland VideoDEUTSCHLAND 83 Season 1 TRAILER (2015) New Series
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Period Drama Action Thriller. Saltpeter harvesting was recorded by Dutch and German travelers as being common in even the smallest villages and was collected from the decomposition process of large dung hills specifically piled for the purpose.
The Dutch punishment for possession of non-permitted gunpowder appears to have been amputation. On the origins of gunpowder technology, historian Tonio Andrade remarked, "Scholars today overwhelmingly concur that the gun was invented in China.
However, the history of gunpowder is not without controversy. A major problem confronting the study of early gunpowder history is ready access to sources close to the events described.
Often the first records potentially describing use of gunpowder in warfare were written several centuries after the fact, and may well have been colored by the contemporary experiences of the chronicler.
Ambiguous language can make it difficult to distinguish gunpowder weapons from similar technologies that do not rely on gunpowder.
A commonly cited example is a report of the Battle of Mohi in Eastern Europe that mentions a "long lance" sending forth "evil-smelling vapors and smoke", which has been variously interpreted by different historians as the "first-gas attack upon European soil" using gunpowder, "the first use of cannon in Europe", or merely a "toxic gas" with no evidence of gunpowder.
Science and technology historian Bert S. Hall makes the observation that, "It goes without saying, however, that historians bent on special pleading, or simply with axes of their own to grind, can find rich material in these terminological thickets.
Another major area of contention in modern studies of the history of gunpowder is regarding the transmission of gunpowder. While the literary and archaeological evidence supports a Chinese origin for gunpowder and guns, the manner in which gunpowder technology was transferred from China to the West is still under debate.
For the most powerful black powder, meal powder , a wood charcoal, is used. The best wood for the purpose is Pacific willow ,  but others such as alder or buckthorn can be used.
In Great Britain between the 15th and 19th centuries charcoal from alder buckthorn was greatly prized for gunpowder manufacture; cottonwood was used by the American Confederate States.
Originally, this was with a mortar-and-pestle or a similarly operating stamping-mill, using copper, bronze or other non-sparking materials, until supplanted by the rotating ball mill principle with non-sparking bronze or lead.
Historically, a marble or limestone edge runner mill, running on a limestone bed, was used in Great Britain; however, by the mid 19th century this had changed to either an iron-shod stone wheel or a cast iron wheel running on an iron bed.
This also helps the extremely soluble saltpeter to mix into the microscopic pores of the very high surface-area charcoal.
Around the late 14th century, European powdermakers first began adding liquid during grinding to improve mixing, reduce dust, and with it the risk of explosion.
Not only did corned powder keep better because of its reduced surface area, gunners also found that it was more powerful and easier to load into guns.
Before long, powder-makers standardized the process by forcing mill cake through sieves instead of corning powder by hand.
The improvement was based on reducing the surface area of a higher density composition. At the beginning of the 19th century, makers increased density further by static pressing.
They broke the dried slabs with hammers or rollers, and sorted the granules with sieves into different grades. In the United States, Eleuthere Irenee du Pont , who had learned the trade from Lavoisier, tumbled the dried grains in rotating barrels to round the edges and increase durability during shipping and handling.
Sharp grains rounded off in transport, producing fine "meal dust" that changed the burning properties. Another advance was the manufacture of kiln charcoal by distilling wood in heated iron retorts instead of burning it in earthen pits.
Controlling the temperature influenced the power and consistency of the finished gunpowder. In , in response to high prices for Indian saltpeter, DuPont chemists developed a process using potash or mined potassium chloride to convert plentiful Chilean sodium nitrate to potassium nitrate.
The following year the Gatebeck Low Gunpowder Works in Cumbria Great Britain started a plant to manufacture potassium nitrate by essentially the same chemical process.
During the 18th century, gunpowder factories became increasingly dependent on mechanical energy. A paper from laments that "Gunpowder is such a nervous and sensitive spirit, that in almost every process of manufacture it changes under our hands as the weather changes.
The term black powder was coined in the late 19th century, primarily in the United States , to distinguish prior gunpowder formulations from the new smokeless powders and semi-smokeless powders.
Semi-smokeless powders featured bulk volume properties that approximated black powder, but had significantly reduced amounts of smoke and combustion products.
Smokeless powder has different burning properties pressure vs. This can rupture older weapons designed for black powder.
Smokeless powders ranged in color from brownish tan to yellow to white. Most of the bulk semi-smokeless powders ceased to be manufactured in the s.
Potassium nitrate is the most important ingredient in terms of both bulk and function because the combustion process releases oxygen from the potassium nitrate, promoting the rapid burning of the other ingredients.
Charcoal does not consist of pure carbon; rather, it consists of partially pyrolyzed cellulose , in which the wood is not completely decomposed.
Carbon differs from ordinary charcoal. Whereas charcoal's autoignition temperature is relatively low, carbon's is much greater.
Thus, a black powder composition containing pure carbon would burn similarly to a match head, at best. The current standard composition for the black powders that are manufactured by pyrotechnicians was adopted as long ago as After manufacturing grains from press-cake in the usual way, his process tumbled the powder with graphite dust for 12 hours.
This formed a graphite coating on each grain that reduced its ability to absorb moisture. Neither the use of graphite nor sodium nitrate was new.
Another suggestion is that it was William Lobb , the planthunter, who recognised the possibilities of sodium nitrate during his travels in South America.
Lammot du Pont would have known about the use of graphite and probably also knew about the plants in south-west England.
In his patent he was careful to state that his claim was for the combination of graphite with sodium nitrate-based powder, rather than for either of the two individual technologies.
Powder used for rocketry can use a slower burn rate since it accelerates the projectile for a much longer time—whereas powders for weapons such as flintlocks, cap-locks, or matchlocks need a higher burn rate to accelerate the projectile in a much shorter distance.
Cannons usually used lower burn-rate powders, because most would burst with higher burn-rate powders. In the First Opium war, the mixture for Qing China gunpowder contained a high ratio of charcoal which gave it a high stability and longer shelf life but generated less kinetic energy when ignited, decreasing the range and accuracy.
In comparison, the mixture for British gunpowder contained a higher ratio of sulfur, allowing the powder to burn faster and thus generate more kinetic energy.
The original dry-compounded powder used in 15th-century Europe was known as "Serpentine", either a reference to Satan  or to a common artillery piece that used it.
Vibration during transportation could cause the components to separate again, requiring remixing in the field. Also if the quality of the saltpeter was low for instance if it was contaminated with highly hygroscopic calcium nitrate , or if the powder was simply old due to the mildly hygroscopic nature of potassium nitrate , in humid weather it would need to be re-dried.
The dust from "repairing" powder in the field was a major hazard. Loading cannons or bombards before the powder-making advances of the Renaissance was a skilled art.
Fine powder loaded haphazardly or too tightly would burn incompletely or too slowly. Typically, the breech-loading powder chamber in the rear of the piece was filled only about half full, the serpentine powder neither too compressed nor too loose, a wooden bung pounded in to seal the chamber from the barrel when assembled, and the projectile placed on.
A carefully determined empty space was necessary for the charge to burn effectively. When the cannon was fired through the touchhole, turbulence from the initial surface combustion caused the rest of the powder to be rapidly exposed to the flame.
The advent of much more powerful and easy to use corned powder changed this procedure, but serpentine was used with older guns into the 17th century.
For propellants to oxidize and burn rapidly and effectively, the combustible ingredients must be reduced to the smallest possible particle sizes, and be as thoroughly mixed as possible.
Once mixed, however, for better results in a gun, makers discovered that the final product should be in the form of individual dense grains that spread the fire quickly from grain to grain, much as straw or twigs catch fire more quickly than a pile of sawdust.
Because the dry powdered ingredients must be mixed and bonded together for extrusion and cut into grains to maintain the blend, size reduction and mixing is done while the ingredients are damp, usually with water.
After , instead of forming grains by hand or with sieves, the damp mill-cake was pressed in molds to increase its density and extract the liquid, forming press-cake.
The pressing took varying amounts of time, depending on conditions such as atmospheric humidity. The hard, dense product was broken again into tiny pieces, which were separated with sieves to produce a uniform product for each purpose: coarse powders for cannons, finer grained powders for muskets, and the finest for small hand guns and priming.
Modern corning first compresses the fine black powder meal into blocks with a fixed density 1. By the late 19th century manufacturing focused on standard grades of black powder from Fg used in large bore rifles and shotguns, through FFg medium and small-bore arms such as muskets and fusils , FFFg small-bore rifles and pistols , and FFFFg extreme small bore, short pistols and most commonly for priming flintlocks.
Owing to the large market of antique and replica black-powder firearms in the US, modern gunpowder substitutes like Pyrodex , Triple Seven and Black Mag3  pellets have been developed since the s.
These products, which should not be confused with smokeless powders, aim to produce less fouling solid residue , while maintaining the traditional volumetric measurement system for charges.
Claims of less corrosiveness of these products have been controversial however. New cleaning products for black-powder guns have also been developed for this market.
Besides black powder, there are other historically important types of gunpowder. Prismatic Brown Powder is a large-grained product the Rottweil Company introduced in in Germany, which was adopted by the British Royal Navy shortly thereafter.
The French navy adopted a fine, 3. These brown powders reduced burning rate even further by using as little as 2 percent sulfur and using charcoal made from rye straw that had not been completely charred, hence the brown color.
Lesmok powder was a product developed by DuPont in ,  one of several semi-smokeless products in the industry containing a mixture of black and nitrocellulose powder.
It was sold to Winchester and others primarily for. Its advantage was that it was believed at the time to be less corrosive than smokeless powders then in use.
It was not understood in the U. The bulkier black powder fouling better disperses primer residue. Failure to mitigate primer corrosion by dispersion caused the false impression that nitrocellulose-based powder caused corrosion.
The development of smokeless powders, such as cordite, in the late 19th century created the need for a spark-sensitive priming charge , such as gunpowder.
However, the sulfur content of traditional gunpowders caused corrosion problems with Cordite Mk I and this led to the introduction of a range of sulfur-free gunpowders, of varying grain sizes.
Sulfur's main role in gunpowder is to decrease the ignition temperature. A sample reaction for sulfur-free gunpowder would be.
Gunpowder does not burn as a single reaction, so the byproducts are not easily predicted. One study  showed that it produced in order of descending quantities A simple, commonly cited, chemical equation for the combustion of black powder is.
A balanced, but still simplified, equation is . Black powder made with less-expensive and more plentiful sodium nitrate in appropriate proportions works just as well, and previous equations apply, with sodium instead of potassium.
However, it is more hygroscopic than powders made from potassium nitrate—popularly known as saltpeter. Because corned black powder grains made with saltpeter are less affected by moisture in the air, they can be stored unsealed without degradation by humidity.
Muzzleloaders have been known to fire after hanging on a wall for decades in a loaded state, provided they remained dry. By contrast, black powder made with sodium nitrate must be kept sealed to remain stable.
The matchlock musket or pistol an early gun ignition system , as well as the flintlock would often be unusable in wet weather, due to powder in the pan being exposed and dampened.
Gunpowder releases 3 megajoules per kilogram and contains its own oxidant. This is lower than TNT 4. Black powder also has a low energy density compared to modern "smokeless" powders, and thus to achieve high energy loadings, large amounts of black powder are needed with heavy projectiles.
Gunpowder is a low explosive , that is, it does not detonate but rather deflagrates burns quickly.