Zeittafel der britischen Geschichte - aus: Alltag in Großbritannien, Leben und arbeiten in England, Schottland und Wales (). Die Geschichte Englands ist die Geschichte des größten und bevölkerungsreichsten Teils des Vereinigten Königreichs. Die ersten schriftlichen Aufzeichnungen. England: Geschichte Länder England: Die Geschichte Englands ist eng mit der Geschichte der anderen Teile Großbritanniens (Wales und Schottland).
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Hunting was mainly done with simple projectile weapons such as javelin and possibly sling. Bow and arrow was known in Western Europe since least BC.
The climate continued to warm and the population probably rose. It is not known whether this was caused by a substantial folk movement or native adoption of foreign practices or both.
People began to lead a more settled lifestyle. Monumental collective tombs were built for the dead in the form of chambered cairns and long barrows.
Towards the end of the period, other kinds of monumental stone alignments begin to appear, such as Stonehenge; their cosmic alignments show a preoccupation with the sky and planets.
Flint technology produced a number of highly artistic pieces as well as purely pragmatic. More extensive woodland clearance was done for fields and pastures.
The Sweet Track in the Somerset Levels is one of the oldest timber trackways known in Northern Europe and among the oldest roads in the world, dated by dendrochronology to the winter of — BC; it too is thought to have been a primarily religious structure.
The Bronze Age began around BC with the appearance of bronze objects. This coincides with the appearance of the characteristic Beaker culture ; again this might have occurred primarily by folk movement or by cultural assimilation or both.
The Bronze Age saw a shift of emphasis from the communal to the individual, and the rise of increasingly powerful elites whose power came from their prowess as hunters and warriors and their controlling the flow of precious resources to manipulate tin and copper into high-status bronze objects such as swords and axes.
Settlement became increasingly permanent and intensive. Towards the end of the Bronze Age, many examples of very fine metalwork began to be deposited in rivers, presumably for ritual reasons and perhaps reflecting a progressive change in emphasis from the sky to the earth, as a rising population put increasing pressure on the land.
England largely became bound up with the Atlantic trade system , which created a cultural continuum over a large part of Western Europe.
The Iron Age is conventionally said to begin around BC. The Atlantic system had by this time effectively collapsed, although England maintained contacts across the Channel with France, as the Hallstatt culture became widespread across the country.
Its continuity suggests it was not accompanied by substantial movement of population; crucially, only a single Hallstatt burial is known from Britain, and even here the evidence is inconclusive.
On the whole, burials largely disappear across England, and the dead were disposed of in a way which is archaeologically invisible: Hillforts were known since the Late Bronze Age, but a huge number were constructed during — BC, particularly in the South, while after about BC new forts were rarely built and many ceased to be regularly inhabited, while a few forts become more and more intensively occupied, suggesting a degree of regional centralisation.
Around this time the earliest mentions of Britain appear in the annals of history. The first historical mention of the region is from the Massaliote Periplus , a sailing manual for merchants thought to date to the 6th century BC, and Pytheas of Massilia wrote of his exploratory voyage to the island around BC.
Both of these texts are now lost; although quoted by later writers, not enough survives to inform the archaeological interpretation to any significant degree.
Contact with the continent was less than in the Bronze Age but still significant. Goods continued to move to England, with a possible hiatus around to BC.
There were a few armed invasions of hordes of migrating Celts. There are two known invasions. Around BC, a group from the Gaulish Parisii tribe apparently took over East Yorkshire, establishing the highly distinctive Arras culture.
And from around — BC, groups of Belgae began to control significant parts of the South. These invasions constituted movements of a few people who established themselves as a warrior elite atop existing native systems, rather than replacing them.
The Belgic invasion was much larger than the Parisian settlement, but the continuity of pottery style shows that the native population remained in place.
Yet, it was accompanied by significant socio-economic change. Proto-urban, or even urban settlements, known as oppida , begin to eclipse the old hillforts, and an elite whose position is based on battle prowess and the ability to manipulate resources re-appears much more distinctly.
In 55 and 54 BC, Julius Caesar , as part of his campaigns in Gaul , invaded Britain and claimed to have scored a number of victories, but he never penetrated further than Hertfordshire and could not establish a province.
However, his invasions mark a turning-point in British history. Control of trade, the flow of resources and prestige goods, became ever more important to the elites of Southern Britain; Rome steadily became the biggest player in all their dealings, as the provider of great wealth and patronage.
A full-scale invasion and annexation was inevitable, in retrospect. The Roman historian Tacitus wrote in his Agricola , completed in AD 98,  that the various groupings of Britons shared physical characteristics with continental peoples.
The Caledonians , inhabitants of what is now Scotland , had red hair and large limbs, indicating a Germanic origin; the Silures , of what is now South Wales , were swarthy with curly hair, indicating a link with the Iberians of the Roman provinces of Hispania , in what is now Portugal and Spain; and the Britons nearest the Gauls of mainland Europe resembled the Gauls.
Some archaeologists and geneticists have challenged the long-held assumption that the invading Anglo-Saxons wiped out the native Britons in England when they invaded, pointing instead to the possibility of a more limited folk movement bringing a new language and culture which the natives gradually assimilated.
Debate continues about the ultimate origins of the people of the British Isles. In and respectively, Bryan Sykes and Stephen Oppenheimer both argued for continuity since the Mesolithic, with much input from the East during the Neolithic.
Ultimately, the genetics have not yet revealed anything new. Biological differences between the English and the Welsh were confirmed by tests at University College London , in which the native English population's DNA correlated to others in Germanic parts of Northern Europe traceable through their Y chromosome.
They landed in Kent and defeated two armies led by the kings of the Catuvellauni tribe, Caratacus and Togodumnus , in battles at the Medway and the Thames.
Togodumnus was killed, and Caratacus fled to Wales. The Roman force, led by Aulus Plautius, waited for Claudius to come and lead the final march on the Catuvellauni capital at Camulodunum modern Colchester , before he returned to Rome for his triumph.
The Catuvellauni held sway over most of the southeastern corner of England; eleven local rulers surrendered, a number of client kingdoms were established, and the rest became a Roman province with Camulodunum as its capital.
By 54 AD the border had been pushed back to the Severn and the Trent, and campaigns were underway to subjugate Northern England and Wales.
But in 60 AD, under the leadership of the warrior-queen Boudicca , the tribes rebelled against the Romans. At first, the rebels had great success.
They burned Camulodunum, Londinium and Verulamium to the ground. There is some archaeological evidence that the same happened at Winchester.
The Second Legion Augusta, stationed at Exeter , refused to move for fear of revolt among the locals.
Londinium governor Suetonius Paulinus evacuated the city before the rebels sacked and burned it; the fire was so hot that a ten-inch layer of melted red clay remains 15 feet below London's streets.
Paulinus gathered what was left of the Roman army. In the decisive battle , 10, Romans faced nearly , warriors somewhere along the line of Watling Street , at the end of which Boudicca was utterly defeated.
It was said that 80, rebels were killed, but only Romans. Over the next 20 years, the borders expanded just a little, but the governor Agricola incorporated into the province the last pockets of independence in Wales and Northern England.
He also led a campaign into Scotland which was recalled by Emperor Domitian. The border gradually formed along the Stanegate road in Northern England, solidified by Hadrian's Wall built in AD, despite temporary forays into Scotland.
The Romans and their culture stayed in charge for years. Traces of their presence are ubiquitous throughout England.
In the wake of the breakdown of Roman rule in Britain from the middle of the fourth century, present day England was progressively settled by Germanic groups.
The entire region was referred to as " Hwicce ", and settlements throughout the south were called Gewisse. The Battle of Deorham was a critical in establishing Anglo-Saxon rule in The precise nature of these invasions is not fully known; there are doubts about the legitimacy of historical accounts due to a lack of archaeological finds.
Gildas Sapiens's De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae , composed in the 6th century, states that when the Roman army departed the Isle of Britannia in the 4th century CE, the indigenous Britons were invaded by Picts , their neighbours to the north now Scotland and the Scots now Ireland.
Britons invited the Saxons to the island to repel them but after they vanquished the Scots and Picts, the Saxons turned against the Britons.
Seven Kingdoms are traditionally identified as being established by these Saxon migrants. Three were clustered in the South east: Sussex , Kent and Essex.
The Midlands were dominated by the kingdoms of Mercia and East Anglia. The Monarchs of Mercia 's lineage was determined to reach as far back as the early 's.
To the north was Northumbria which unified two earlier kingdoms, Bernicia and Deira. Eventually, the kingdoms were dominated by Northumbria and Mercia in the 7th century, Mercia in the 8th century and then Wessex in the 9th century.
Northumbria extended its control north into Scotland and west into Wales. It also subdued Mercia whose first powerful King, Penda , was killed by Oswy in Northumbria's power began to wane after with the defeat and death of its king Aegfrith at the hands of the Picts.
Mercian power reached its peak under the rule of Offa , who from had influence over most of Anglo-Saxon England. Since Offa's death in , the supremacy of Wessex was established under Egbert who extended control west into Cornwall before defeating the Mercians at the Battle of Ellendun in Four years later, he received submission and tribute from the Northumbrian king, Eanred.
The history of the fifth and sixth centuries is particularly difficult to access, peppered with a mixture of mythology, such as the characters of Hengist and Horsa , and legend, such as St Germanus 's so-called "Alleluia Victory" against the Heathens, and half-remembered history, such as the exploits of Ambrosius Aurelianus and King Arthur.
However, the belief that the Saxons wiped or drove out all the native Britons from England has been widely discredited by a number of archaeologists since the s.
Anyway Anglo-Saxons and Saxonified Britons spread into England, by a combination of military conquest and cultural assimilation.
By the eighth century, a kind of England had emerged. Augustine , the first Archbishop of Canterbury , took office in The last pagan Anglo-Saxon king, Penda of Mercia , died in The last pagan Jutish king, Arwald of the Isle of Wight was killed in The Anglo-Saxon mission on the continent took off in the 8th century, leading to the Christianisation of practically all of the Frankish Empire by Throughout the 7th and 8th century power fluctuated between the larger kingdoms.
Bede records Aethelbert of Kent as being dominant at the close of the 6th century, but power seems to have shifted northwards to the kingdom of Northumbria, which was formed from the amalgamation of Bernicia and Deira.
Edwin of Northumbria probably held dominance over much of Britain, though Bede's Northumbrian bias should be kept in mind.
Due to succession crises, Northumbrian hegemony was not constant, and Mercia remained a very powerful kingdom, especially under Penda.
Two defeats ended Northumbrian dominance: The so-called "Mercian Supremacy" dominated the 8th century, though it was not constant.
Aethelbald and Offa , the two most powerful kings, achieved high status; indeed, Offa was considered the overlord of south Britain by Charlemagne. His power is illustrated by the fact that he summoned the resources to build Offa's Dyke.
However, a rising Wessex, and challenges from smaller kingdoms, kept Mercian power in check, and by the early 9th century the "Mercian Supremacy" was over.
This period has been described as the Heptarchy , though this term has now fallen out of academic use. Other small kingdoms were also politically important across this period: Hwicce , Magonsaete , Lindsey and Middle Anglia.
The first recorded landing of Vikings took place in in Dorsetshire , on the south-west coast. However, by then the Vikings were almost certainly well-established in Orkney and Shetland , and many other non-recorded raids probably occurred before this.
Records do show the first Viking attack on Iona taking place in The arrival of the Vikings in particular the Danish Great Heathen Army upset the political and social geography of Britain and Ireland.
In Northumbria fell to the Danes; East Anglia fell in Though Wessex managed to contain the Vikings by defeating them at Ashdown in , a second invading army landed, leaving the Saxons on a defensive footing.
Alfred was immediately confronted with the task of defending Wessex against the Danes. He spent the first five years of his reign paying the invaders off.
In , Alfred's forces were overwhelmed at Chippenham in a surprise attack. It was only now, with the independence of Wessex hanging by a thread, that Alfred emerged as a great king.
In May he led a force that defeated the Danes at Edington. The victory was so complete that the Danish leader, Guthrum , was forced to accept Christian baptism and withdraw from Mercia.
Alfred then set about strengthening the defences of Wessex, building a new navy—60 vessels strong. Alfred's success bought Wessex and Mercia years of peace and sparked economic recovery in previously ravaged areas.
Alfred's success was sustained by his son Edward , whose decisive victories over the Danes in East Anglia in and were followed by a crushing victory at Tempsford in These military gains allowed Edward to fully incorporate Mercia into his kingdom and add East Anglia to his conquests.
Edward then set about reinforcing his northern borders against the Danish kingdom of Northumbria. Edward's rapid conquest of the English kingdoms meant Wessex received homage from those that remained, including Gwynedd in Wales and Scotland.
These conquests led to his adopting the title 'King of the English' for the first time. The dominance and independence of England was maintained by the kings that followed.
Two powerful Danish kings Harold Bluetooth and later his son Sweyn both launched devastating invasions of England.
Anglo-Saxon forces were resoundingly defeated at Maldon in More Danish attacks followed, and their victories were frequent.
His solution was to pay off the Danes: These payments, known as Danegelds , crippled the English economy. Then he then made a great error: In response, Sweyn began a decade of devastating attacks on England.
Northern England, with its sizable Danish population, sided with Sweyn. By , London, Oxford, and Winchester had fallen to the Danes. Cnut seized the throne, crowning himself King of England.
Alfred of Wessex died in and was succeeded by his son Edward the Elder. The titles attributed to him in charters and on coins suggest a still more widespread dominance.
His expansion aroused ill-feeling among the other kingdoms of Britain, and he defeated a combined Scottish-Viking army at the Battle of Brunanburh.
However, the unification of England was not a certainty. Nevertheless, Edgar , who ruled the same expanse as Athelstan, consolidated the kingdom, which remained united thereafter.
There were renewed Scandinavian attacks on England at the end of the 10th century. Under his rule the kingdom became the centre of government for the North Sea empire which included Denmark and Norway.
Cnut was succeeded by his sons, but in the native dynasty was restored with the accession of Edward the Confessor. Edward's failure to produce an heir caused a furious conflict over the succession on his death in His struggles for power against Godwin, Earl of Wessex , the claims of Cnut's Scandinavian successors, and the ambitions of the Normans whom Edward introduced to English politics to bolster his own position caused each to vie for control of Edward's reign.
Harold Godwinson became king, probably appointed by Edward on his deathbed and endorsed by the Witan. After marching from Yorkshire , Harold's exhausted army was defeated and Harold was killed at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October.
For five years, he faced a series of rebellions in various parts of England and a half-hearted Danish invasion, but he subdued them and established an enduring regime.
The Norman Conquest led to a profound change in the history of the English state. William ordered the compilation of the Domesday Book , a survey of the entire population and their lands and property for tax purposes, which reveals that within 20 years of the conquest the English ruling class had been almost entirely dispossessed and replaced by Norman landholders, who monopolised all senior positions in the government and the Church.
William and his nobles spoke and conducted court in Norman French , in both Normandy and England. The use of the Anglo-Norman language by the aristocracy endured for centuries and left an indelible mark in the development of modern English.
Upon being crowned, on Christmas Day , William immediately began consolidating his power. By , he faced revolts on all sides and spent four years crushing them.
He then imposed his superiority over Scotland and Wales, forcing them to recognise him as overlord. The English Middle Ages were characterised by civil war , international war, occasional insurrection, and widespread political intrigue among the aristocratic and monarchic elite.
England was more than self-sufficient in cereals, dairy products, beef and mutton. Its international economy was based on wool trade , in which wool from the sheepwalks of northern England was exported to the textile cities of Flanders , where it was worked into cloth.
Medieval foreign policy was as much shaped by relations with the Flemish textile industry as it was by dynastic adventures in western France.
An English textile industry was established in the 15th century, providing the basis for rapid English capital accumulation.
Henry was also known as "Henry Beauclerc" because he received a formal education, unlike his older brother and heir apparent William who got practical training to be king.
Henry worked hard to reform and stabilise the country and smooth the differences between the Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman societies. The loss of his son, William Adelin , in the wreck of the White Ship in November , undermined his reforms.
This problem regarding succession cast a long shadow over English history. Henry I had required the leading barons, ecclesiastics and officials in Normandy and England, to take an oath to accept Matilda also known as Empress Maud, Henry I's daughter as his heir.
England was far less than enthusiastic to accept an outsider, and a woman, as their ruler. There is some evidence that Henry was unsure of his own hopes and the oath to make Matilda his heir.
Probably Henry hoped Matilda would have a son and step aside as Queen Mother. Upon Henry's death, the Norman and English barons ignored Matilda's claim to the throne, and thus through a series of decisions, Stephen , Henry's favourite nephew, was welcomed by many in England and Normandy as their new king.
On 22 December , Stephen was anointed king with implicit support by the church and nation. Matilda and her own son waited in France until she sparked the civil war from — known as the Anarchy.
In the autumn of , she invaded England with her illegitimate half-brother Robert of Gloucester. Her husband, Geoffroy V of Anjou , conquered Normandy but did not cross the channel to help his wife.
During this breakdown of central authority, nobles built adulterine castles i. Stephen was captured, and his government fell. Matilda was proclaimed queen but was soon at odds with her subjects and was expelled from London.
The war continued until , when Matilda returned to France. Stephen reigned unopposed until his death in , although his hold on the throne was uneasy.
As soon as he regained power, he began to demolish the adulterine castles, but kept a few castles standing, which put him at odds with his heir.
His contested reign, civil war and lawlessness broke out saw a major swing in power towards feudal barons. In trying to appease Scottish and Welsh raiders, he handed over large tracts of land.
When Stephen's son and heir apparent Eustace died in , Stephen made an agreement with Henry of Anjou who became Henry II to succeed Stephen and guarantee peace between them.
The union was retrospectively named the Angevin Empire. Henry II destroyed the remaining adulterine castles and expanded his power through various means and to different levels into Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Flanders, Nantes, Brittany, Quercy, Toulouse, Bourges and Auvergne.
The reign of Henry II represents a reversion in power from the barony to the monarchical state in England; it was also to see a similar redistribution of legislative power from the Church, again to the monarchical state.
This period also presaged a properly constituted legislation and a radical shift away from feudalism. In his reign, new Anglo-Angevin and Anglo-Aquitanian aristocracies developed, though not to the same degree as the Anglo-Norman once did, and the Norman nobles interacted with their French peers.
Henry's successor, Richard I "the Lion Heart" also known as "The absent king" , was preoccupied with foreign wars, taking part in the Third Crusade , being captured while returning and pledging fealty to the Holy Roman Empire as part of his ransom, and defending his French territories against Philip II of France.
His successor, his younger brother John , lost much of those territories including Normandy following the disastrous Battle of Bouvines in , despite having in made the Kingdom of England a tribute-paying vassal of the Holy See , which it remained until the 14th century when the Kingdom rejected the overlordship of the Holy See and re-established its sovereignty.
From onwards, John had a constant policy of maintaining close relations with the Pope, which partially explains how he persuaded the Pope to reject the legitimacy of the Magna Carta.
Over the course of his reign, a combination of higher taxes, unsuccessful wars and conflict with the Pope made King John unpopular with his barons. In , some of the most important barons rebelled against him.
He met their leaders along with their French and Scot allies at Runnymede , near London on 15 June to seal the Great Charter Magna Carta in Latin , which imposed legal limits on the king's personal powers.
But as soon as hostilities ceased, John received approval from the Pope to break his word because he had made it under duress. John travelled around the country to oppose the rebel forces, directing, among other operations, a two-month siege of the rebel-held Rochester Castle.
John's son, Henry III , was only 9 years old when he became king — He spent much of his reign fighting the barons over the Magna Carta  and the royal rights, and was eventually forced to call the first " parliament " in He was also unsuccessful on the Continent, where he endeavoured to re-establish English control over Normandy , Anjou , and Aquitaine.
His reign was punctuated by many rebellions and civil wars, often provoked by incompetence and mismanagement in government and Henry's perceived over-reliance on French courtiers thus restricting the influence of the English nobility.
One of these rebellions—led by a disaffected courtier, Simon de Montfort —was notable for its assembly of one of the earliest precursors to Parliament.
Henry III's policies towards Jews began with relative tolerance, but became gradually more restrictive. In the Statute of Jewry , reinforced physical segregation and demanded a previously notional requirement to wear square white badges.
Popular superstitious fears were fuelled, and Catholic theological hostility combined with Baronial abuse of loan arrangements, resulting in Simon de Montfort 's supporters targeting of Jewish communities in their revolt.
This hostility, violence and controversy was the background to the increasingly oppressive measures that followed under Edward I. The reign of Edward I reigned — was rather more successful.
Edward enacted numerous laws strengthening the powers of his government, and he summoned the first officially sanctioned Parliaments of England such as his Model Parliament.
He conquered Wales and attempted to use a succession dispute to gain control of the Kingdom of Scotland , though this developed into a costly and drawn-out military campaign.
Edward I is also known for his policies first persecuting Jews, particularly the Statute of the Jewry. This banned Jews from their previous role in making loans, and demanded that they work as merchants, farmers, craftsmen or soldiers.
This was unrealistic, and failed. His son, Edward II , proved a disaster. A weak man who preferred to engage in activities like thatching and ditch-digging [ citation needed ] rather than jousting, hunting, or the usual entertainments of kings, he spent most of his reign trying in vain to control the nobility, who in return showed continual hostility to him.
In , the English army was disastrously defeated by the Scots at the Battle of Bannockburn. Edward also showered favours on his companion Piers Gaveston , a knight of humble birth.
While it has been widely believed that Edward was a homosexual because of his closeness to Gaveston, there is no concrete evidence of this. The king's enemies, including his cousin Thomas of Lancaster , captured and murdered Gaveston in Edward's downfall came in when his wife, Queen Isabella , travelled to her native France and, with her lover Roger Mortimer , invaded England.
Despite their tiny force, they quickly rallied support for their cause. The king fled London, and his companion since Piers Gaveston's death, Hugh Despenser , was publicly tried and executed.
Edward was captured, charged with breaking his coronation oath, deposed and imprisoned in Gloucestershire until he was murdered some time in the autumn of , presumably by agents of Isabella and Mortimer.
Millions of people in northern Europe died in the Great Famine of — At age 17, he led a successful coup against Mortimer, the de facto ruler of the country, and began his personal reign.
Edward III reigned —, restored royal authority and went on to transform England into the most efficient military power in Europe.
His reign saw vital developments in legislature and government—in particular the evolution of the English parliament—as well as the ravages of the Black Death.
After defeating, but not subjugating, the Kingdom of Scotland , he declared himself rightful heir to the French throne in , but his claim was denied due to the Salic law.
This started what would become known as the Hundred Years' War. Edward's later years were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity and poor health.
For many years, trouble had been brewing with Castile —a Spanish kingdom whose navy had taken to raiding English merchant ships in the Channel.
Edward won a major naval victory against a Castilian fleet off Winchelsea in Although the Castilian crossbowmen killed many of the enemy,  the English gradually got the better of the encounter.
In spite of Edward's success, however, Winchelsea was only a flash in a conflict that raged between the English and the Spanish for over years,  coming to a head with the defeat of the Spanish Armada in In , England signed an alliance with the Kingdom of Portugal , which is claimed to be the oldest alliance in the world still in force.
It was suppressed by Richard II , with the death of rebels. The Black Death , an epidemic of bubonic plague that spread all over Europe, arrived in England in and killed as much as a third to half the population.
Military conflicts during this period were usually with domestic neighbours such as the Welsh, Irish and Scots, and included the Hundred Years' War against the French and their Scottish allies.
Edward III gave land to powerful noble families, including many people of royal lineage. Because land was equivalent to power, these powerful men could try to claim the crown.
The autocratic and arrogant methods of Richard II only served to alienate the nobility more, and his forceful dispossession in by Henry IV increased the turmoil.
Henry spent much of his reign defending himself against plots, rebellions and assassination attempts. The king's success in putting down these rebellions was due partly to the military ability of his eldest son, Henry of Monmouth , who later became king though the son managed to seize much effective power from his father in Henry V succeeded to the throne in He renewed hostilities with France and began a set of military campaigns which are considered a new phase of the Hundred Years' War , referred to as the Lancastrian War.
He won several notable victories over the French, including at the Battle of Agincourt. They married in Henry died of dysentery in , leaving a number of unfulfilled plans, including his plan to take over as King of France and to lead a crusade to retake Jerusalem from the Muslims.
Henry V's son, Henry VI , became king in as an infant. His reign was marked by constant turmoil due to his political weaknesses.
While he was growing up, England was ruled by the Regency government. It appeared they might succeed due to the poor political position of the son of Charles VI, who had claimed to be the rightful king as Charles VII of France.
However, in , Joan of Arc began a military effort to prevent the English from gaining control of France. The French forces regained control of French territory.
In , Henry VI came of age and began to actively rule as king. To forge peace, he married French noblewoman Margaret of Anjou in , as provided in the Treaty of Tours.
Hostilities with France resumed in He could not control the feuding nobles, and civil war began called Wars of the Roses — Although fighting was very sporadic and small, there was a general breakdown in the power of the Crown.
The royal court and Parliament moved to Coventry, in the Lancastrian heartlands, which thus became the capital of England until Henry's cousin deposed Henry in to became Edward IV.
He defeated the Lancastrians at the Battle of Mortimer's Cross. He was briefly expelled from the throne in — when Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick , brought Henry back to power.
Six months later, Edward defeated and killed Warwick in battle and reclaimed the throne. Henry was imprisoned in the Tower of London and died there.
Edward went a little way to restoring the power of the Crown. Edward died in , only 40 years old. His eldest son and heir Edward V , aged 13, could not succeed him because the king's brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester declared his marriage bigamous, making all his children illegitimate.
Richard declared himself king. Edward V and his year-old brother Richard were imprisoned in the Tower of London and were not seen again.
It was widely believed that Richard had them murdered and he was reviled as a treacherous fiend, which limited his ability to govern during his brief reign.
Traditionally, the Battle of Bosworth Field is considered to mark the end of the Middle Ages in England, although Henry did not introduce any new concept of monarchy, and for most of his reign his hold on power was tenuous.
He claimed the throne by conquest and God's judgement in battle. Parliament quickly recognized him as king, but the Yorkists were far from defeated.
Most of the European rulers did not believe Henry would survive long, and were thus willing to shelter claimants against him. The first plot against him was the Stafford and Lovell Rebellion of , which presented no serious threat.
Using a peasant boy named Lambert Simnel , who posed as Edward, Earl of Warwick the real Warwick was locked up in the Tower of London , he led an army of 2, German mercenaries paid for by Margaret of Burgundy into England.
They were defeated and de la Pole was killed at the difficult Battle of Stoke , where the loyalty of some of the royal troops to Henry was questionable.
The king, realizing that Simnel was a dupe, employed him in the royal kitchen. Again with support from Margaret of Burgundy, he invaded England four times from — before he was captured and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Both Warbeck and the Earl of Warwick were dangerous even in captivity, and Henry executed them in before Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain would allow their daughter Catherine to come to England and marry his son Arthur.
In , Henry defeated Cornish rebels marching on London. The rest of his reign was relatively peaceful, despite worries about succession after the death of his wife Elizabeth of York in Henry VII's foreign policy was peaceful.
He had made an alliance with Spain and the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I , but in , when they went to war with France, England was dragged into the conflict.
Impoverished and his hold on power insecure, Henry had no desire for war. He quickly reached an understanding with the French and renounced all claims to their territory except the port of Calais, realizing also that he could not stop them from incorporating the Duchy of Brittany.
In return, the French agreed to recognize him as king and stop sheltering pretenders. Shortly afterwards, they became preoccupied with adventures in Italy.
Henry also reached an understanding with Scotland, agreeing to marry his daughter Margaret to that country's king James IV. Upon becoming king, Henry inherited a government severely weakened and degraded by the Wars of the Roses.
The treasury was empty, having been drained by Edward IV's Woodville in-laws after his death. Through a tight fiscal policy and sometimes ruthless tax collection and confiscations, Henry refilled the treasury by the time of his death.
He also effectively rebuilt the machinery of government. In , the king's son Arthur , having married Catherine of Aragon , died of illness at age 15, leaving his younger brother Henry, Duke of York as heir.
When the king himself died in , the position of the Tudors was secure at last, and his son succeeded him unopposed. Henry VIII began his reign with much optimism.
The handsome, athletic young king stood in sharp contrast to his wary, miserly father. Henry's lavish court quickly drained the treasury of the fortune he inherited.
He married the widowed Catherine of Aragon , and they had several children, but none survived infancy except a daughter, Mary.
In , the young king started a war in France. Although England was an ally of Spain, one of France's principal enemies, the war was mostly about Henry's desire for personal glory, despite his sister Mary being married to the French king Louis XII.
The war accomplished little. The English army suffered badly from disease, and Henry was not even present at the one notable victory, the Battle of the Spurs.
Meanwhile, James IV of Scotland despite being Henry's other brother-in-law , activated his alliance with the French and declared war on England.
While Henry was dallying in France, Catherine, who was serving as regent in his absence, and his advisers were left to deal with this threat.
At the Battle of Flodden on 9 September , the Scots were completely defeated. James and most of the Scottish nobles were killed. When Henry returned from France, he was given credit for the victory.
Eventually, Catherine was no longer able to have any more children. The king became increasingly nervous about the possibility of his daughter Mary inheriting the throne, as England's one experience with a female sovereign, Matilda in the 12th century, had been a catastrophe.
He eventually decided that it was necessary to divorce Catherine and find a new queen. To persuade the Church to allow this, Henry cited the passage in the Book of Leviticus: However, Catherine insisted that she and Arthur never consummated their brief marriage and that the prohibition did not apply here.
The timing of Henry's case was very unfortunate; it was and the Pope had been imprisoned by emperor Charles V , Catherine's nephew and the most powerful man in Europe, for siding with his archenemy Francis I of France.
Because he could not divorce in these circumstances, Henry seceded from the Church, in what became known as the English Reformation.
The newly established Church of England amounted to little more than the existing Catholic Church, but led by the king rather than the Pope. It took a number of years for the separation from Rome to be completed, and many were executed for resisting the king's religious policies.
In , Catherine was banished from court and spent the rest of her life until her death in alone in an isolated manor home, barred from contact with Mary.
Secret correspondence continued thanks to her ladies-in-waiting. Their marriage was declared invalid, making Mary an illegitimate child.
Henry married Anne Boleyn secretly in January , just as his divorce from Catherine was finalised. Please enter recipient e-mail address es.
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Specific information can be seen at a glance with concise and accurate details via the England History Timeline. This History timeline of a famous place is suitable for children and kids and include many important events of significant occurrence and outcome which are detailed in the England History Timeline.
Crucifixion of Jesus in the Roman province of Jerusalem and the origin of Christianity. The English inhabitants were referred to as the Anglo-Saxons and ruled by different tribes and rulers.
Between the Norman line rule the English. William invades Wales and builds castles on the borders. The Knights Templar founded to protect Jerusalem and European pilgrims on their journey to the city.
Saladin manages to unite the Muslim world and recapture Jerusalem, sparking the Third Crusade. The Hundred Years War begins.
England and France struggle for dominance of Western Europe. Cinema of the United Kingdom. List of museums in England.
National symbols of England. England portal United Kingdom portal. London's municipal population is also the largest in the EU. Other Pagan paths, such as Wicca or Druidism, have not been included in this number.
Other Pagan paths, such as Druidism, and general "Pagan" have not been included in this number. Scottish students attending Scottish universities have their fees paid by the devolved Scottish Parliament.
Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 18 April Retrieved 9 August Retrieved 24 April Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 1 February Archived from the original on 9 February International Organization for Standardization.
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Oliver, Boyd and Tweeddale. There are two very large islands in it, called the British Isles, Albion and Ierne; On Coming-to-be and Passing Away.
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Archived from the original on 9 June Archived from the original PDF on 25 March Retrieved 19 February Retrieved 8 August Pouwels 27 November Retrieved 25 September Archived from the original on 21 June Retrieved 10 December Entry on Sciencemuseum website.
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The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 19 May Retrieved 23 March House of Commons Library. Archived from the original PDF on 1 October Archived from the original on 25 May Retrieved 20 July The named reference LifeExpect was invoked but never defined see the help page.
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Retrieved 22 May Retrieved 4 December Retrieved 25 January The religious settlement that eventually emerged in the reign of Elizabeth gave the Church of England the distinctive identity that it has retained to this day.
It resulted in a Church that consciously retained a large amount of continuity with the Church of the Patristic and Medieval periods in terms of its use of the catholic creeds, its pattern of ministry, its buildings and aspects of its liturgy, but which also embodied Protestant insights in its theology and in the overall shape of its liturgical practice.
The way that this is often expressed is by saying that the Church of England is both 'catholic and reformed.
Archived from the original on 13 August Archived from the original on 21 July Jews and England" PDF.
Archived from the original PDF on 21 July Archived from the original on 7 July Retrieved 28 October Archived from the original on 31 October Retrieved 16 September QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited.
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The E-mail Address es field is required.Der englisch-spanische Krieg endete erst Damit bekamen die Parlamente ihr über Jahrhunderte hinweg entscheidendes Machtmittel dem König gegenüber in die Hand. Zunächst machte sich ihre Rekatholisierungspolitik vor allem durch die Absetzung weniger, ausgesprochen protestantischer Bischöfe und die Einsetzung entschiedener Katholiken bemerkbar. Maria war eindeutig die legitime, durch einen Aufstand vertriebene Königin Schottlands. Im Sommer konnte der König die schottische Invasion nur beenden, indem er einer Zahlung von Pfund täglich bis zu einem endgültigen Frieden zustimmte. In dieser Situation zeigte sich der Vorteil der englischen Verkehrsinfrastruktur: Insbesondere wurde das Parlamentswahlrecht wieder auf den Stand vor dem Commonwealth zurückversetzt und an den Besitz gebunden. Einerseits wuchs der Einfluss sowohl des alten angelsächsischen als auch des dänischen Hochadels, insbesondere der Earls der Herzogtümer, andererseits bevorzugte Eduard normannische Adlige an seinem Hof. Jahrhundert machte in diesen Regionen auch die christliche Missionierung erste Fortschritte. Flankiert wurde diese Bevölkerungsverschiebungen mit dem Ausbau von Wirtschaft, Kirchenstruktur und eines protestantischen Schulsystems. Immer mehr Handelslinien wurden für private Kaufleute freigegeben, wobei der Amerika- und der Levantehandel in den Händen von privilegierten Gesellschaften blieben. Der Vatikan war eben schon immer ein Spielverderber. Wie so vieles in der englischen Geschichte, hat die Glorreiche Revolution mit Religion zu tun. Nach der relativen religiösen Liberalität des Commonwealth setzte wieder eine Phase der rigiden Kirchenpolitik ein. Die bereits im Mittelalter stark dezimierten Wälder konnten den mit der Bevölkerung stark steigenden Bedarf an Brennmaterial zum Heizen und für die Wirtschaft nicht mehr decken.